5775 5775 Tense - Imperfect The imperfect tense generally represents continual or repeated action. Where the present tense might indicate "they are asking," the imperfect would indicate "they kept on asking." In the case of the verb "to be," however, the imperfect tense is used as a general past tense and does not carry the connotation of continual or repeated action.
5776 5776 Tense - Future The future tense corresponds to the English future, and indicates the contemplated or certain occurrence of an event which has not yet occurred.
5777 5777 Tense - Aorist The aorist tense is characterized by its emphasis on punctiliar action; that is, the concept of the verb is considered without regard for past, present, or future time. There is no direct or clear English equivalent for this tense, though it is generally rendered as a simple past tense in most translations. The events described by the aorist tense are classified into a number of categories by grammarians. The most common of these include a view of the action as having begun from a certain point ("inceptive aorist"), or having ended at a certain point ("cumulative aorist"), or merely existing at a certain point ("punctiliar aorist"). The categorization of other cases can be found in Greek reference grammars. The English reader need not concern himself with most of these finer points concerning the aorist tense, since in most cases they cannot be rendered accurately in English translation, being fine points of Greek exegesis only. The common practice of rendering an aorist by a simple English past tense should suffice in most cases.
5778 5778 Tense - Perfect The perfect tense in Greek corresponds to the perfect tense in English, and describes an action which is viewed as having been completed in the past, once and for all, not needing to be repeated. Jesus' last cry from the cross, TETELESTAI ("It is finished!") is a good example of the perfect tense used in this sense, namely "It [the atonement] has been accomplished, completely, once and for all time." Certain antiquated verb forms in Greek, such as those related to seeing (eidw) or knowing (oida) will use the perfect tense in a manner equivalent to the normal past tense. These few cases are exception to the normal rule and do not alter the normal connotation of the perfect tense stated above.
5779 5779 Tense - Pluperfect The pluperfect tense in Greek occurs rarely. It corresponds in a single Greek word to the sense of the English pluperfect, which indicates an event viewed as having been once and for all accomplished in past time. In contrast, the perfect tense reflects the final completion of an action at the present moment described. In translation the Greek pluperfect may not always follow the rendering of the English pluperfect, due to excessive wordiness. The English pluperfect is normally formed with the past tense of the "helping" verbs "to have" or "to be," plus the past participle, e.g., "He had finished." The English perfect is formed by the present tense of the helping verb plus the past participle, e.g., "He has finished."
5780 5780 Tense - Second Aorist The "second aorist" tense is identical in meaning and translation to the normal or "first" aorist tense. The only difference is in the form of spelling the words in Greek, and there is no effect upon English translation. See "Aorist" # 5777
5781 5781 Tense - Second Future The "second future" is identical in meaning to that of the normal or "first" future tense. The classification merely reflects a spelling variation in Greek of the "first future" tense, and has no effect on English meaning beyond that of the normal future. See "Future" # 5776
5782 5782 Tense - Second Perfect The second perfect is identical in meaning to that of the normal or "first" perfect tense, and has no additional effect on English translation. The classification merely represents a spelling variation in Greek. See "Perfect" # 5778
5783 5783 Tense - Second Pluperfect The second pluperfect is identical in meaning to that of the normal or "first" pluperfect tense. It has no additional meaning or effect on English translation, and merely reflects a spelling variation in Greek.
5784 5784 Voice - Active The active voice represents the subject as the doer or performer of the action. e.g., in the sentence, "The boy hit the ball," the boy performs the action.
5785 5785 Voice - Middle The middle voice indicates the subject performing an action upon himself (reflexive action) or for his own benefit. E.g., "The boy groomed himself." Many verbs which occur only in middle voice forms are translated in English as having an active sense; these are called "deponent" verbs, and do not comply with the normal requirements for the middle voice.
5786 5786 Voice - Passive The passive voice represents the subject as being the recipient of the action. E.g., in the sentence, "The boy was hit by the ball," the boy receives the action.
5787 5787 Voice - Either Middle or Passive Many of the so-called "deponent" verbs can have either a middle or passive form. These are normally translated as having an active voice, since they have no active form in their outward spelling. At times, however, they retain their middle or passive significance.
5788 5788 Voice - Middle Deponent The middle deponent forms in almost all cases are translated as being in the active voice. See "Active" # 5784
5789 5789 Voice - Passive Deponent The passive deponent forms in almost all cases are translated as being in the passive voice. See "Passive" # 5786
5790 5790 Voice - Middle or Passive Deponent The middle or passive deponent forms in almost all cases are translated as being in the active voice. See "Active" # 5784
5791 5791 Mood - Indicative The indicative mood is a simple statement of fact. If an action really occurs or has occurred or will occur, it will be rendered in the indicative mood.
5792 5792 Mood - Subjunctive The subjunctive mood is the mood of possibility and potentiality. The action described may or may not occur, depending upon circumstances. Conditional sentences of the third class ("ean" + the subjunctive) are all of this type, as well as many commands following conditional purpose clauses, such as those beginning with "hina."
5793 5793 Mood - Optative The optative mood is generally used in the so-called "fourth-class" conditions which express a wish or desire for an action to occur in which the completion of such is doubtful. By the time of the New Testament, the optative mood was beginning to disappear from spoken and written Greek, and such rarely occurs in the New Testament. In a few cases, verbs in the optative mood stand apart from a conditional clause to express the strongest possible wish regarding an event. The most common of these appears in the phrase "mh genoito" (AV,"God forbid"; NKJV "Certainly not").
5794 5794 Mood - Imperative The imperative mood corresponds to the English imperative, and expresses a command to the hearer to perform a certain action by the order and authority of the one commanding. Thus, Jesus' phrase, "Repent ye, and believe the gospel" #Mr 1:15 is not at all an "invitation," but an absolute command requiring full obedience on the part of all hearers.
5795 5795 Mood - Infinitive The Greek infinitive mood in most cases corresponds to the English infinitive, which is basically the verb with "to" prefixed, as "to believe." Like the English infinitive, the Greek infinitive can be used like a noun phrase ("It is better to live than to die"), as well as to reflect purpose or result ("This was done to fulfil what the prophet said").
5796 5796 Mood - Participle The Greek participle corresponds for the most part to the English participle, reflecting "-ing" or "-ed" being suffixed to the basic verb form. The participle can be used either like a verb or a noun, as in English, and thus is often termed a "verbal noun."
5797 5797 Mood - Impersonal The impersonal mood is used only in a few verb forms which do not conjugate in the full sense. The most common of these is the Greek word "dei," which is most often rendered "it is necessary" or "one must."
5798 5798 Mood - Imperative-Sense Participle This reflects a Greek participle which implies that a command to perform the action is implicit, even though it is not outwardly or directly expressed.
5799 5799 No Tense or Voice Stated In a number of places certain verbs are cited in Perschbacher's "The New Analytical Greek Lexicon" which do not have any tense or voice directly stated. In almost all of these cases, one can assume that the tense is Present and the voice is Active, especially when the sense is that of a command (Imperative). See "Present" # 5774 See "Active" # 5784